5 brain biases that limit leaders
Leaders would like to think that they lead in unbiased ways. However, that’s easier said than done. The fall of man affected every part of who we are, including our thinking.
Brain biases abound. A Google search reveals almost 200 different biases. Among those 200, what brain biases pose the greatest threat to effective leadership? In this post, I explain five and suggest an idea for each to counter its potential negative impact.
Scientists call these ‘brain‘ biases cognitive biases, judgment errors that arise from our tendency to mentally jump to conclusions. Daniel Kahneman, Nobel prize winner and author of the book, Thinking, Fast and Slow, calls them heuristics, mental shortcuts we use when we make decisions. Because our brain has limited energy, we can‘t consciously ‘think‘ before every decision. Therefore, we intuitively make many decisions (more than 40 percent of what we do is habit) that require limited mental resources and allocate our brain energy only to those that require our immediate attention. As a result, we sometimes don‘t make the best decisions which can impair our leadership.
Here are my top 5 brain biases.
1. The confirmation bias. This bias reflects our preference for those who agree with us. We subconsciously look for people and information to confirm our preexisting beliefs, actions, and attitudes. As a result, we spotlight only the information that supports the decision we want to make and we tend to discard negative input that we need to see the full picture and make the wisest decision.
Suggestion: Do a premortem on a planned ministry or initiative. Before you make the decision, gather your team and ask, “Let’s assume we did (such and such) and it gloriously failed? What would we say contributed to the failure?” Allow full and frank discussion. This post goes into greater detail about this bias.
2. The planning fallacy. This bias explains how our plans and forecasts tend to mirror best-case scenarios. When we plan a new initiative, we tend to assume everything will go as planned, with few bumps or obstacles along the way. For example, studies show that college students tend to vastly underestimate how long it takes to write a major paper.
Suggestion: Assume that your project will take you 50 percent longer than you anticipate. Schedule that extra time into your calendar. If it takes less than that, consider it bonus time to spend on other projects.
3. The sunk cost bias. This bias appears when we’ve invested considerable time and effort into something that is not going well, but we simply can‘t give it up. If we did, we’d feel like a failure. This often happens in churches when we keep a ministry alive when we need to kill it.
Suggestion: What ministry or project is not working and draining your soul? If you could magically make it go away, how would you feel? If you feel a great weight off your shoulders by imagining it gone, you may have succumbed to this bias. It may be time to kill that program or project. In this post, I unpack this bias in more detail.
4. The correspondence bias. This bias is also called the fundamental attribution error. This happens when we attribute the unseemly behavior of others to their character or personality, but when do the same thing, we attribute it to external circumstances.
Suggestion: Give people the benefit of the doubt. Our brains are wired to be negative and assume the worst. Unless a behavior is really egregious, tone down being judgmental until you get the facts.
5. The halo bias or halo effect.This bias mirrors the previous bias. It affects us when we make unrealistic judgments about a person‘s ability to perform a task or judge their character based on positive qualities we see in him or her. Ministry expectations can easily fall to this bias. Church people can assume that because a new pastor has good speaking skills that he also must be a superb organizer, is great at hospital visitation, and is an excellent counselor. Unfortunately, most pastors can’t excel in every ministry area.
Suggestion: Find the core strengths of those you work with, both volunteer and paid. Help them develop those skills without trying to make them who God did not create them to be.
Bias can sneak into any leader’s life. Inventory your leadership and honestly ask if any of these biases have slipped in. If they have, create a simple plan to deal with them, sooner than later.
What other brain biases have you seen impact leadership?
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Dr. Charles Stone is Lead Pastor at West Park Church (London, Ontario) and founder of StoneWell Ministries. He has authored four books including, People Pleasing Pastors: Avoiding the Pitfalls of Approval Motivated Leadership (IVP 2014), and Brain-Savvy Leaders: The Science of Significant Ministry (Abingdon, May 2015). He is passionate about intersecting insight about the brain with Biblical insight. He posts regularly at www.charlesstone.com.
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